Understanding Photovoltaic (PV)

Photovoltaic (PV) modules convert sunlight into
electrical energy. The amount of sunlight, known as
global radiation, directly impacts the output power
that can be utilized by electrical devices. The maximum
output power is typically measured under "standard conditions"
and is referred to as kWp or kWpeak. This measurement helps
in assessing the peak performance capability of the PV
modules when exposed to ideal conditions.

Photovoltaic (PV) modules convert sunlight into electrical energy. The amount of sunlight, known as global radiation, directly impacts the output power that can be utilized by electrical devices. The maximum output power is typically measured under "standard conditions" and is referred to as kWp or kWpeak. This measurement helps in assessing the peak performance capability of the PV modules when exposed to ideal conditions.

Aim of PV calculation

The primary outcome of this calculation is the capacity of the PV system
(in kW peak and estimated PV area), which determines the annual electricity
generation. By considering electricity prices (obtained from grid supply and
feed-in tariffs), one can assess the individual investment decision (ROI).

The primary outcome of this calculation is the capacity of the PV system (in kW peak and estimated PV area), which determines the annual electricity generation. By considering electricity prices (obtained from grid supply and feed-in tariffs), one can assess the individual investment decision (ROI).

PV calculation

Find out the size (capacity) and costs of your PV system
to make an informed decision about your individual investment.

Find out the size (capacity) and costs of your PV system to make an informed decision about your individual investment.

About PV calculation

Inclination PV modules (°):

Inclination of PV modules refers to the angle at which solar panels
are tilted or oriented with respect to the horizontal plane. The inclination
angle plays a crucial role in optimizing the efficiency of solar panels by
maximizing sunlight exposure throughout the day. Adjusting the inclination
of PV modules can help increase energy production by ensuring that the panels
receive sunlight at an optimal angle.

Orientation / Azimuth PV modules (°):

The Orientation / Azimuth of PV modules refers to the direction
solar panels face for optimal energy generation. It is typically south
in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere.
Azimuth indicates the angle deviation from true north (N-0,O-90,S-180,W-270).

Annual electricity demand (kWh):

The annual electricity demand of a building is the total amount of electrical
energy consumed by the building over the course of a year. It includes the electrical energy used
for lighting, heating, cooling, appliances, electronics, and other electrical equipment
within the building. The electricity demand can vary significantly depending on the size
of the building, its usage patterns, and energy efficiency measures implemented.

Electricity price grid consumption (cent/kWh):

In a country like Germany, household electricity prices can include generation,
transmission, distribution costs, taxes, levies, surcharges, and network charges.
These factors contribute to the overall cost of electricity consumed from the grid for households.

Electricity price grid feed-in (cent/kWh):

In Germany, the electricity price for grid feed-in has been a cornerstone
of the country's Energiewende (energy transition), which aims to shift from fossil fuels
and nuclear power towards renewable energy sources. The system that has supported this
transition is known as the feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme. Under this scheme, renewable energy
producers—ranging from individual homeowners with solar panels to large wind farms—are
guaranteed a fixed price for the electricity they generate and feed into the national
grid over a set period, typically 20 years.

The current feed-in tariff information is available on the website netztransparenz.de.

Investment cost of PV modules (Euro/kWpeak):

These investment costs encompass a wide range of elements including the PV modules
themselves, installation, maintenance, and any additional equipment required for optimal operation.

For a more specific understanding, the average cost of installing solar panels in Germany is
approximately €17050 for a 5-kW system and €34100 for a 10-kW system. You can find the information
at the website ecowatch.com/solar.

Location:

For the computation, currently the location is configured for Leipzig, Germany;
upcoming versions of this module will include additional locations.

Inclination PV modules (°):

Inclination of PV modules refers to the angle at which solar panels are tilted or oriented with respect to the horizontal plane. The inclination angle plays a crucial role in optimizing the efficiency of solar panels by maximizing sunlight exposure throughout the day. Adjusting the inclination of PV modules can help increase energy production by ensuring that the panels receive sunlight at an optimal angle.

Orientation / Azimuth PV modules (°):

The Orientation / Azimuth of PV modules refers to the direction solar panels face for optimal energy generation. It is typically south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere. Azimuth indicates the angle deviation from true north (N-0,O-90,S-180,W-270).

Annual electricity demand (kWh):

The annual electricity demand of a building is the total amount of electrical energy consumed by the building over the course of a year. It includes the electrical energy used for lighting, heating, cooling, appliances, electronics, and other electrical equipment within the building. The electricity demand can vary significantly depending on the size of the building, its usage patterns, and energy efficiency measures implemented.

Electricity price grid consumption (cent/kWh):

In a country like Germany, household electricity prices can include generation, transmission, distribution costs, taxes, levies, surcharges, and network charges. These factors contribute to the overall cost of electricity consumed from the grid for households.

Electricity price grid feed-in (cent/kWh):

In Germany, the electricity price for grid feed-in has been a cornerstone of the country's Energiewende (energy transition), which aims to shift from fossil fuels and nuclear power towards renewable energy sources. The system that has supported this transition is known as the feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme. Under this scheme, renewable energy producers—ranging from individual homeowners with solar panels to large wind farms—are guaranteed a fixed price for the electricity they generate and feed into the national grid over a set period, typically 20 years.

The current feed-in tariff information is available on the website netztransparenz.de.

Investment cost of PV modules (Euro/kWpeak):

These investment costs encompass a wide range of elements including the PV modules themselves, installation, maintenance, and any additional equipment required for optimal operation.

For a more specific understanding, the average cost of installing solar panels in Germany is approximately €17050 for a 5-kW system and €34100 for a 10-kW system. You can find the information at the website ecowatch.com/solar.

Location:

For the computation, currently the location is configured for Leipzig, Germany; upcoming versions of this module will include additional locations.

Simulation method:

The simuation method of the PV modules is powered by pvlib.